Dating from 1999-2014, these oils, watercolors, or pastels are representational paintings in that they represent objects and places. I consider them to also be abstract in the way shapes, colors, and lines form a two dimensional structure, regardless of subject matter. I include them to show where I began with my art process, and how it relates to my current work.

By 2012, I began to be less interested in representing places and things, and more interested in how the elements of painting worked without outside references. I decided to explore more abstract ideas, beginning with collages made from papers that I painted in a full spectrum of colors and textures. At first, the collages were abstracted landscapes, gradually I became more and more drawn to non-objective shapes and ideas, as I wanted the painting to be the object, instead of it being about objects.

Giorgio Morandi said "nothing is more abstract than reality". It can also be said that nothing is more real than abstraction.